s Genetically Modified Plants and Animals - What Will be the Impact on Human Health | I2P: Information to Pharmacists - Archive
Publication Date 01/07/2014         Volume. 6 No. 6   
Information to Pharmacists

Editorial

From the desk of the editor

Welcome to the July 2014 homepage edition of i2P (Information to Pharmacists) E-Magazine.
At the commencement of 2014 i2P focused on the need for the entire profession of pharmacy and its associated industry supports to undergo a renewal and regeneration.
We are now half-way through this year and it is quite apparent that pharmacy leaders do not yet have a cohesive and clear sense of direction.
Maybe the new initiative by Woolworths to deliver clinical service through young pharmacists and nurses may sharpen their focus.
If not, community pharmacy can look forward to losing a substantial and profitable market share of the clinical services market.
Who would you blame when that happens?
But I have to admit there is some effort, even though the results are but meagre.
In this edition of i2P we focus on the need for research about community pharmacy, the lack of activity from practicing pharmacists and when some research is delivered, a disconnect appears in its interpretation and implementation.

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News Flash

Newsflash Updates for July 2014

Newsflash Updates

Regular weekly updates that supplement the regular monthly homepage edition of i2P. 
Access and click on the title links that are illustrated

Comments: 1

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Feature Contribution

Woolworths Pharmacy - Getting One Stage Closer

Neil Johnston

It started with “tablet” computers deployed on shelves inside the retailer Coles, specifically to provide information to consumers relating to pain management and the sale of strong analgesics.
This development was reported in i2P under the title Coles Pharmacy Expansion and the Arid PGA Landscape”
In that article we reported that qualified information was a missing link that had come out of Coles market research as the reason to why it had not succeeded in dominating the pain market.
Of course, Woolworths was working on the same problem at the same time and had come up with a better solution - real people with good information.

Comments: 5

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Intensive Exposition without crossing over with a supermarket

Fiona Sartoretto Verna AIAPP

Editor's Note: The understanding of a pharmacy's presentation through the research that goes into the design of fixtures and fittings that highlight displays, is a never-ending component of pharmacy marketing.
Over the past decade, Australian pharmacy shop presentations have fallen behind in standards of excellence.
It does not take rocket science - you just have to open your eyes.
Recently, our two major supermarkets, Woolworths and Coles, have entered into the field of drug and condition information provision - right into the heartland of Australian Pharmacy.

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The sure way to drive business away

Gerald Quigley

I attended the Pregnancy, Baby and Children’s Expo in Brisbane recently.
What an eye and ear opening event that was!
Young Mums, mature Mums, partners of all ages, grandparents and friends……...many asking about health issues and seeking reassurances that they were doing the right thing.

Comments: 1

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‘Marketing Based Medicine’ – how bad is it?

Baz Bardoe

It should be the scandal of the century.
It potentially affects the health of almost everyone.
Healthcare providers and consumers alike should be up in arms. But apart from coverage in a few credible news sources the problem of ‘Marketing Based Medicine,’ as psychiatrist Dr Peter Parry terms it, hasn’t as yet generated the kind of universal outrage one might expect.

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Community Pharmacy Research - Are You Involved?

Mark Coleman

Government funding is always scarce and restricted.
If you are ever going to be a recipient of government funds you will need to fortify any application with evidence.
From a government perspective, this minimises risk.
I must admit that while I see evidence of research projects being managed by the PGA, I rarely see community pharmacists individually and actively engaged in the type of research that would further their own aims and objectives (and survival).

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Organisational Amnesia and the Lack of a Curator Inhibits Cultural Progress

Neil Johnston

Most of us leave a tremendous impact on pharmacies we work for (as proprietors, managers, contractors or employees)—in ways we’re not even aware of.
But organisational memories are often all too short, and without a central way to record that impact and capture the knowledge and individual contributions, they become lost to time.
It is ironic that technology has provided us with phenomenal tools for communication and connection, but much of it has also sped up our work lives and made knowledge and memory at work much more ephemeral.

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Academics on the payroll: the advertising you don't see

Staff Writer

This article was first published in The Conversation and was written by Wendy Lipworth, University of Sydney and Ian Kerridge, University of Sydney
In the endless drive to get people’s attention, advertising is going ‘native’, creeping in to places formerly reserved for editorial content. In this Native Advertising series we find out what it looks like, if readers can tell the difference, and more importantly, whether they care.
i2P has republished the article as it supports our own independent and ongoing investigations on how drug companies are involved in marketing-based medicine rather than evidence-based medicine.

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I’ve been thinking about admitting wrong.

Mark Neuenschwander

Editor's Note: This is an early article by Mark Neuenschwander we have republished after the soul-searching surrounding a recent Australian dispensing error involving methotrexate.
Hmm. There’s more than one way you could take that, huh? Like Someday when I get around to it (I’m not sure) I may admit that I was wrong about something. Actually, I’ve been thinking about the concept of admitting wrong. So don’t get your hopes up. No juicy confessions this month except that I wish it were easier for me to admit when I have been wrong or made a mistake.
Brian Goldman, an ER physician from Toronto, is host of the award-winning White Coat, Black Art on CBC Radio and slated to deliver the keynote at The unSUMMIT for Bedside Barcoding in Anaheim this May. His TED lecture, entitled, “Doctors make mistakes. Can we talk about it?” had already been viewed by 386,072 others before I watched it last week.

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Dispensing errors – a ripple effect of damage

Kay Dunkley - BPharm, Grad Dip Hosp Pharm, Grad Dip Health Admin, MPS, MSHPA

Most readers will be aware of recent publicity relating to dispensing errors and in particular to deaths caused by methotrexate being incorrectly packed in dose administration aids.
The Pharmacy Board of Australia (PBA), in its Communique of 13 June 2014, described a methotrexate packing error leading to the death of a patient and noted “extra vigilance is required to be exercised by pharmacists with these drugs”.
This same case was reported by A Current Affair (ACA) in its program on Friday 20 June
http://aca.ninemsn.com.au/article/8863098/prescription-drug-warning

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Take a vacation from your vocation

Harvey Mackay

Have you ever had one of those days when all you could think was, “Gosh, do I need a vacation.”
Of course you have – because all work and no play aren’t good for anyone.
A vacation doesn’t have to be two weeks on a tropical island, or even a long weekend at the beach. 
A vacation just means taking a break from your everyday activities. 
A change of pace. 
It doesn’t matter where.
Everyone needs a vacation to rejuvenate mentally and physically. 
But did you also know that you can help boost our economy by taking some days off? 
Call it your personal stimulus package.

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Explainer: what is peer review?

Staff Writer

This article was first published in the Conversation. It caught our eye because "peer review" it is one of the standards for evidence-based medicines that has also been corrupted by global pharma.
The article is republished by i2P as part of its ongoing investigation into scientific fraud and was writtenby Andre Spicer, City University London and Thomas Roulet, University of Oxford
We’ve all heard the phrase “peer review” as giving credence to research and scholarly papers, but what does it actually mean?
How does it work?
Peer review is one of the gold standards of science. It’s a process where scientists (“peers”) evaluate the quality of other scientists' work. By doing this, they aim to ensure the work is rigorous, coherent, uses past research and adds to what we already knew.
Most scientific journals, conferences and grant applications have some sort of peer review system. In most cases it is “double blind” peer review. This means evaluators do not know the author(s), and the author(s) do not know the identity of the evaluators.
The intention behind this system is to ensure evaluation is not biased.
The more prestigious the journal, conference, or grant, the more demanding will be the review process, and the more likely the rejection. This prestige is why these papers tend to be more read and more cited.

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Dentists from the dark side?

Loretta Marron OAM BSc

While dining out with an elderly friend, I noticed that he kept his false tooth plate in his shirt pocket. He had recently had seven amalgam-filled teeth removed, because he believed that their toxins were making him sick; but his new plate was uncomfortable. He had been treated by an 'holistic dentist'. Claiming to offer a "safe and healthier alternative" to conventional dentistry, are they committed to our overall health and wellbeing or are they promoting unjustified fear, unnecessarily extracting teeth and wasting our money?

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Planning for Profit in 2015 – Your key to Business Success

Chris Foster

We are now entering a new financial year and it’s a great time to reflect on last year and highlight those things that went well and those that may have impacted negatively in the pursuit of your goals.
It's also a great to spend some time re-evaluating your personal and business short, medium and long term goals in the light of events over the last year.
The achievement of your goals will in many cases be dependent on setting and aspiring to specific financial targets. It's important that recognise that many of your personal goals will require you to generate sufficient business profits to fund those aspirations

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ReWalk™ Personal Exoskeleton System Cleared by FDA for Home Use

Staff Writer

Exoskeleton leader ReWalk Robotics announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cleared the company’s ReWalk Personal System for use at home and in the community.
ReWalk is a wearable robotic exoskeleton that provides powered hip and knee motion to enable individuals with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to stand upright and walk.
ReWalk, the only exoskeleton with FDA clearance via clinical studies and extensive performance testing for personal use, is now available throughout the United States.

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Attracting and Retaining Great People

Barry Urquhart

Welcome to the new financial year in Australia.
For many in business the past year has been described as a challenging period.
Adjectives are a key feature of the English language.  In the business lexicon their use can be, and often is evocative and stimulate creative images.  But they can also contribute to inexact, emotional perceptions.
Throughout the financial pages of newspapers and business magazines adjectives abound.
References to “hot” money draw attention and comment.  The recent wave of funds from Chinese investors, keen to remove their wealth from the jurisdiction and control of government regulations is creating a potential property bubble in Australia.

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Updating Your Values - Extending Your Culture

Neil Johnston

Pharmacy culture is dormant.
Being comprised of values, unless each value is continually addressed, updated or deleted, entire organisations can stagnate (or entire professions such as the pharmacy profession).
Good values offer a strong sense of security, knowing that if you operate within the boundaries of your values, you will succeed in your endeavours.

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Evidence-based medicine is broken. Why we need data and technology to fix it

Staff Writer

The following article is reprinted from The Conversation and forms up part of our library collection on evidence-based medicines.
At i2P we also believe that the current model of evidence is so fractured it will never be able to be repaired.
All that can happen is that health professionals should independently test and verify through their own investigations what evidence exists to prescribe a medicine of any potency.
Health professionals that have patients (such as pharmacists) are ideally placed to observe and record the efficacy for medicines.
All else should confine their criticisms to their evidence of the actual evidence published.
If there are holes in it then share that evidence with the rest of the world.
Otherwise, do not be in such a hurry to criticise professions that have good experience and judgement to make a good choice on behalf of their patients, simply because good evidence has not caught up with reality.

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Laropiprant is the Bad One; Niacin is/was/will always be the Good One

Staff Writer

Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, July 25, 2014
Laropiprant is the Bad One; Niacin is/was/will always be the Good One
by W. Todd Penberthy, PhD

(OMNS July 25, 2014) Niacin has been used for over 60 years in tens of thousands of patients with tremendously favorable therapeutic benefit (Carlson 2005).
In the first-person NY Times best seller, "8 Weeks to a Cure for Cholesterol," the author describes his journey from being a walking heart attack time bomb to a becoming a healthy individual.
He hails high-dose niacin as the one treatment that did more to correct his poor lipid profile than any other (Kowalski 2001).

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Culture Drive & Pharmacy Renewal

Neil Johnston

Deep within all of us we have a core set of values and beliefs that create the standards of behaviour that we align with when we set a particular direction in life.
Directions may change many times over a lifetime, but with life experiences and maturity values may increase in number or gain greater depth.
All of this is embraced under one word – “culture”.
When a business is born it will only develop if it has a sound culture, and the values that comprise that culture are initially inherent in the business founder.
A sound business culture equates to a successful business and that success is often expressed in the term “goodwill” which can be eventually translated to a dollar value.

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ReWalk™ Personal Exoskeleton System Cleared by FDA for Home Use

Staff Writer

Exoskeleton leader ReWalk Robotics announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cleared the company’s ReWalk Personal System for use at home and in the community.
ReWalk is a wearable robotic exoskeleton that provides powered hip and knee motion to enable individuals with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to stand upright and walk.
ReWalk, the only exoskeleton with FDA clearance via clinical studies and extensive performance testing for personal use, is now available throughout the United States.

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Pharmacy 2014 - Pharmacy Management Conference

Neil Johnston

The brave new world of health and wellness is not the enemy of Pharmacy, it is its champion.
Australian futurist, Morris Miselowski, one of the world's leading business visionaries, will present the Opening Keynote address on Pharmacy's Future in the new Health and Wellness Landscape at 2.00pm on Wednesday July 30.
Morris believes the key to better health care could already be in your pocket, with doctors soon set to prescribe iPhone apps, instead of pills.
Technology will revolutionise the health industry - a paradigm shift from healthcare to personal wellness.
Health and wellness applications on smartphones are already big news, and are dramatically changing the way we manage our personal health and everyday wellness.

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Generation and Application of Community Pharmacy Research

Neil Johnston

Editor’s Note: We have had a number of articles in this issue relating to pharmacy research.
The PGA has conducted a number of research initiatives over the years, including one recently reported in Pharmacy News that resulted from an analysis of the QCPP Patient Questionnaire.
Pharmacy Guild president, George Tambassis, appears to have authored the article following, and there also appears to be a disconnect between the survey report and its target audience illustrated by one of the respondent comments published.
I have asked Mark Coleman to follow through, elaborate and comment:

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Genetically Modified Plants and Animals - What Will be the Impact on Human Health

Neil Johnston

articles by this author...

Neil Johnston is a pharmacist who trained as a management consultant. He was the first consultant to service the pharmacy profession and commenced practice as a full time consultant in 1972, specialising in community pharmacy management, pharmacy systems, preventive medicine and the marketing of professional services. He has owned, or part-owned a total of six pharmacies during his career, and for a decade spent time both as a clinical pharmacist and Chief Pharmacist in the public hospital system. He has been editor of i2P since 2000.

Genetic modification of plants has been growing apace and not all the news is good.
Recently, an announcement was made that the first genetically modified animal (salmon) had been developed for aqua-farming and replacement of regular wild salmon.
While this development is a little outside of the regular Pharmedia Reports it is thought that consideration should be given to the health and social implications of the widespread use of GM foods and their regulation.
For example, the regulator in the US, the FDA appears sometimes to serve the needs of global business interests rather than the health and wellbeing of its citizens.
In Australia our regulator, the TGA, is about to undergo an audit process that has been the culmination of many complaints as to how this agency goes about its business.

On another stage again, the European Union is facing a total loss of its traditional herbal medicines base through a new regulatory process, some aspects of which have similar overtones that are gradually developing here in Australia.
European defenders of traditional herbal medicines say that "to best understand how this can be happening, one needs to see that trade laws have been at the center of the moves to place all aspects of food and medicine under the control of Big Pharma and Agribusiness.

If you've followed what's been happening in the United States regarding raw milk and the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) claims that foods magically become drugs when health claims are made, you may have noted that the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has been part of the process.

Rather than treating food and traditional medicines as human rights issues, they have been treated as trade issues. That makes the desires of large corporations the focus of food and herbal law, rather than the needs and desires of people. It's this twisting that has resulted in the FDA's making outrageously absurd statements, such as claiming that Cheerios and walnuts quite literally become drugs simply because of health claims made for them.

The goal of it all is to make the world safe for the megacorporations to trade freely. The needs and health of the people simply are not a factor in their considerations."

It's complex and worrying and i2P have again asked Mark Coleman to open up a discussion into this issue, because it has, and will increasingly continue to impact on human health.
We have chosen a recent news item regarding GM salmon, because salmon oil is one ot the better known compementary medicines and GM developments in this fish oil production has a definite potential to impact adversely on human health.

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Fast growing salmon cleared as fit for human consumption in US

Source: GM Watch

http://www.gmwatch.org/latest-listing/1-news-items/12459-fda-gm-salmon-fit-for-consumption

A genetically modified salmon which grows twice as fast as normal is completely safe for human consumption and poses little risk to the environment according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The regulatory body's verdict paves the way for GM animals to be produced commercially for food for the first time.

The creature, dubbed "Frankenfish" by critics, looks likely to be approved for human consumption later this month. Its developers, a Boston-based company called Aquabounty Technologies, say it could be on supermarket shelves within the next two years.


Scientists at the firm developed the patented AquAdvantage salmon by taking a normal Atlantic salmon, and giving it a growth hormone gene from faster-growing Pacific chinook salmon together with DNA from a voracious eel-like creature called an ocean pout.


The resulting creature requires 25 per cent less food and reaches market weight in 15 to 18 months, rather than the usual three years. Environmentalists are outraged. They claim the GM salmon will escape and interbreed with wild populations, and that eating the fish may prove to be dangerous for humans. But the FDA looks likely to authorise commercial production of AquAdvantage salmon. In research notes released over the weekend, the regulator said it can find no evidence that the salmon will endanger either the environment or people who eat it.


Meat from AquAdvantage fish "is as safe as food from conventional Atlantic salmon [and] there is a reasonable certainty of no harm from consumption of food from this animal," the FDA analysis concluded, adding that the risk of GM fish escaping into the wild is "extremely small."


AquaBounty plans to produce only sterile female salmon, to prevent interbreeding. But Wenonah Hauter, the executive director at Food and Water Watch, said: "It seems likely that there could be fertile salmon that are going to be put into commercial production".


The GM industry hopes the expected ruling in favour of AquAdvantage salmon will be the first step towards farmers being able to raise a full range of fast-growing, disease-resistant GM animals.

Mark Coleman

I have been asked to comment on the above introduction and news item so I'll give it my best shot.

The subject is very broad and now spans in excess of 10 years of development into an area that originally showed great promise, particularly in the area of medicines.
We initiall
y heard reports of how vaccines were being "grown" as components of potato and tomato plants. We also heard how some of these plants "escaped" into the wild, with the potential to affect human health adversely if consumed for food purposes rather than for their drug component.

We also heard of GM corn and soy being developed and then discovered that the seeds employed for the end crop were sterile and that farmers had to go back each year to agribusinesses like Monsanto, to repurchase seed that they would normally set aside from their own crops.
Then we heard instances where, despite assurances, both these crops escaped into adjoining farmer's paddocks and infected their crops.
This was a major concern to organic farmers who suddenly found themselves unprotected by the regulators - the organic farmers were actually sued for breach of patent by Monsanto - a convoluted decision by the regulators allowing this to happen.

How bizarre to be sued over a process where you are the injured party through a situation you have no control over!

Then we began to hear the litany of complaints as it became apparent that GM foods were not risk free and appeared to be causing a major range of allergies that even ocurred when humans consumed animals that had been fed GM plants.
But what a great business model for global food and drug businesses.
On one hand you can patent the end product and on the other, the health problems caused by GM foods opens the door for new patented drugs to be devolped to treat the new problems.
A sort of perpetual motion.

Generally it could be said that a majority of consumers (78%) do not want to ingest GM foods, but they are unable to distinguish a GM product at the supermarket because it is not adequately labelled.
And regulators, by being passive in this area, seem complicit in supporting GM manufacturers to inflict their products on the general public without allowing full disclosure and a freedom of choice.
Yet there is a strict vigilance surrounding herbal medicines that have been around for centuries where a regime now exists where proponents have to prove their safety and efficacy at a prohibitive cost.
In practice, that squashes the herbal and complementary markets where their traditional use spans centuries.
And before commencing studies on the new GM salmon
Aqua Bounty (the inventor) was reportedly engaged in extensive culling of deformed, diseased and dying fish before any of the data in the application were collected.
We definitely need more rigorous studies using better experimental design, with more sophisticated or sensitive methodology
Yes it does seem that global food and drug manufacturers are being given an open door.

I have compiled a list of concerns that represents the serious issues put forward by a number of involved organisations. It is not necessarily an exhaustive list, but at least it is a starting point for a discussion.

Summarizing complex issues, such as all those concerning food, agriculture and health is not easy, nor is it necessarily a good thing. However I believe that it could be helpful to list the reasons why we should  say “no” to GM foods.
Not because of ideological positions or prejudices, as those who think they are the only repositories of knowledge love to claim, but for serious and justifiable reasons, shared by many researchers and scientists.

1) CONTAMINATION: Safely cultivating GM foods is impossible because of our small farms and lack of adequate natural barriers to protect organic and conventional crops. Additionally, agriculture is part of a living system which includes wild fauna, the water cycle, the wind and the reactions of microorganisms in the soil; GM crops cannot be confined to the surface of the field in which they are being cultivated.

2) FOOD SOVEREIGNTY: How could organic, biodynamic and conventional farmers be sure that their products are not contaminated?
Even the limited spread of GM crops in open fields would change forever the quality and the current state of our agriculture, destroying our freedom to choose what we eat.
An example of this was recently illustrated in the mainstream media when it was alleged that a Pfizer manufactured baby formula was contaminated with a GM soy product.
It was not stated on the label, but current regulations allow a contaminant under a certain percentage level to remain unreported on the label. This is not good enough.

3) HEALTH: It has been shown that animals fed with GMOs and humans consuming GM crops or GM-fed animals, can develop health problems.

4) FREEDOM: GM crops denature the role of farmers, who have always improved and selected their own seeds.
GM seeds are owned by multinationals to whom the farmer must turn every new season, because, like all commercial hybrids, second-generation GM cropss do not give good results. It is also forbidden for farmers to try to improve the variety without paying expensive royalties.

5) ECONOMY AND CULTURE: GM products do not have historical or cultural links to a local area.
A significant part of its agricultural and food economy is based upon identity and the variety of local products. Introducing anonymous products with no history would weaken a system that also has close links to the tourism industry.

6) BIODIVERSITY: GM crops impoverish biodiversity because they require large surface areas and an intensive monoculture system. Growing only one kind of corn for human consumption will mean a reduction in flavors and knowledge.
Monocultures also attract and concentrate insect infestations requiring more pesticides.

7) ECO-COMPATIBILITY: Research on GMOs has so far focused on two kinds of “advantages”: resistance to a corn parasite (the corn borer) and resistance to a herbicide (glyphosate).
Supporters of GMOs say that they allow the reduced use of synthetic chemicals.
But crop rotation is the only real way to fight the corn borer, and herbicide resistance will only lead to freer use of the chemical in the fields, given that it harms only undesirable weeds, not the actual crops.
But there is now evidence that herbicide resistant "super weeds" are now starting to emerge.

8) CAUTION: Around 30 years since GM crops began to be studied, results in the agricultural sector concern only three crops (corn, rapeseed and soy). In fact the plants do not support their genetic modifications very well and this science is still rudimentary and partially entrusted to chance. There is no evidence-based cautious and careful approach, as exists in Germany and France, where some GM crops have been banned.

9) PROGRESS: GMOs are the result of a myopic and superficial way of seeing progress.
The role of small-scale agriculture in the protection of local areas, the defense of the landscape and the struggle against global warming is increasingly clear to consumers, governments and scientists.
Instead of following the siren call of the market, modern research should support sustainable agriculture and its needs.

10) HUNGER: When it comes to hunger, the United Nations says that family agriculture will protect the sectors of the population at risk of malnutrition. Multinationals instead promise that GMOs will feed the world, but since they began to be marketed around 15 years ago, the number of starving people in the world has only grown, just like the profits of the companies that produce the seeds. In countries like Argentina and Brazil, GM soy has swept away energy-providing crops like potatoes, corn, wheat and millet on which the daily diet is based.

Concerns about climate change, food production, water use, genetic modification and issues of human health as a result of poor food regulation and production, have not been fully aired or debated by Australian consumers.
The processes involved can alter forever, economic growth at the town or village level.

It is recommended that i2P readers familiarise themselves with the "slow food movement" (as opposed to a "fast food" culture), a group of organisations committed to growing local and nutritious foods that are then properly cooked and eaten.
I was impressed by a recent documentary aired on SBS television where a slow food consultant was avble to transform an entire town's health and economy through the promotion of slow food.
Basically and step-by-step, the population of a declining Polish town were educated to slow food by first converting chefs at local restaurants to use and promote locally grown organic produce with meals to remain at the same retail price.
Excess local production was then channelled back through efficient local distribution channels to ensure a market was permanently created.
The next step was to recruit the unemployed in the town and train them up into competent farm hands that were paid wages, and thus the unemployment cycle was broken.
Because the work was primarily outdoors and pleasant, cycles of depression were broken and people became generally more happy and less ill.
Noticing this process, community health practitioners were encouraged to refer their mental health patients to the program, again with positive results.

Consultants to the program decided they would then prepare a cook book based on the foods that were traditionally grown in the area. Ancestor recipes from the 19th century were recruited and published into a heritage format that was then utilised to promote tourism that icluded visits to the various organic farms within the town area.

News spread and vistations and requests for educational classes and other materials increased.

One side effect was that in a short space of three years, the local school that was about to be closed, was transformed into a growing education program with increased student intakes.
Education standards rose to about the equivalent of our local TAFE system.
Today, the town has a strong identity and a thriving economy with a good general population health and it is expanding the size of the school.

Doesn't this sound more exciting than being dictated to by global agribusinesses and drug companies?

Return to home

Submitted by Anthony West on Mon, 20/12/2010 - 18:55.

Thanks for sharing this articles. It's very beneficail to everyone and Im sure there are lots of people who are looking for this.

Anthony West

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